Evolvement of Welding Technology in Ancient China and Analysis of Social Influencing Factors

Author:Huang Ying Hang

Supervisor:yin hai jie


Degree Year:2019





The achievements of Chinese archaeological work and the development of the research on the history of technology have made great progress in the study of ancient Chinese metal technology from a grand perspective.However,the research of ancient Chinese metal processing technology in the micro-field is still in the blank.In order to study and sort out the characteristics of the generation,development and application of welding technology in ancient China,through consulting a large number of ancient books and other documents,as well as on-the-spot textual research of cultural relics collected in more than 20 provincial,municipal and regional heritage museums,this paper combines the textual research with the textual research of cultural relics,summarizes and collates the changes of different types of artifacts in different historical periods,and compares the process,find out that Chinese Ancient welding technology not only has a long history of development,but also undergoes a complex and changeable process evolution process.The invention and development of technology and technology are strongly influenced by social and cultural factors.In order to clearly grasp the development process of welding technology in ancient China,the research is carried out from two dimensions of "social logic" and "technic logic".The research on the dimension of "social logic" aims at discussing the influence of social and cultural system on technology and clarifying the role of social rights and hierarchical differentiation in ancient Chinese welding technology.The research of "technic logic" is to clarify the evolution process of technology and to analyze the intrinsic relevance of technology in the process of ancient welding technology change.Because welding technology came into being at the end of primitive society and the early stage of class differentiation,the relationship between prehistoric social technology development and social development before welding technology came into being was analyzed.By comparing the changes of prehistoric social morphology reflected by archaeological relics and the relationship between technological competence and social hierarchical differentiation reflected in literature records,it is found that the early technological competence o f primitive society contributed to many social leaders,and promoted the changes of social morphology and social hierarchical differentiation.In the process of social hierarchical differentiation,technological capability determines the result of social hierarchical differentiation to a certain extent.At the beginning of prehistoric class society,a whole set of etiquette culture was formed in ancient Chinese society,which materialized social class and marked social identity with technological products.This is the social and cultural background of welding technology in ancient China.In the research of "technic logic" dimension,through the analysis of literature and cultural relics,it is found that casting-welding was the earliest welding technology in ancient China.Initially used to repair casting defects of early manufacturing thin-walled cavity bronzes,it evolved into casting and welding technology of large-scale bronzes,and the connection technology of main parts and accessories,which became the supporting technology of bronzes becoming larger and more complex in shape.Brazing technology comes from the splicing of large-scale bronze processing.Early bronze solution was used,and later brazing solders that could be melted at low temperatures were developed.During the Spring and Autumn Period,brazing technology was widely used,which made the bronze ware more complicated and complicated.Brazing technology also gradually developed from connecting larger accessories to fine welding.Until the Tang Dynasty,the brazing technology in the development of fine gold technology went to further refinement.Forging-welding technology is to produce high-quality weapons.The application is mainly embodied in the forging and welding of high-quality weapon materials and steel clamping for the purpose of obtaining sharp edges.Combining "social logic" and "technic logic" to analyze the emergence,development and application of ancient welding technology in China,it is found that the early aristocracy pursued to materialize and externalize the social hierarchy system with large and complex bronze wares in order to highlight the status of social hierarchy.The processing demand of this kind of bronze ceremonial ware promotes the emergence and development of castin g-welding technology.During the Spring and Autumn Period,when rituals broke down and nobles used bronzes more and more,the demand for rapid processing of bronzes came into being.Low temperature brazing technology began to be widely used.Forging-welding technology is to meet the nobility’s saber culture,processing a very small number of high-quality weapons,not directly used for war.It can be seen that the ancient welding technology in China was influenced by social and cultural factors in the process of its production and development.The establishment,maintenance and destruction of social etiquette,the prominence of power status,the blending of different cultures,and the satisfaction of the desires of the aristocratic ruling class are all social and cultural factors affecting the development direction of welding technology in ancient China.