Study on Emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade
Supervisor:pan lu sheng
It is well-known that,the developing trend of the society nowadays is diversification and modernization,and the way of existence for human being is also experiencing lots of new profound changes.With the deepening of the globalization,mass production made by the science technologies and crafts,different voices about setting roots again on our own traditions,following or keeping pace with the times,focusing on the exact situation at modern time,culture self-consciousness or self-confidence,and urbanization have been heard and even some actions have been taken,as some unprecedented conflicts among vital elements like human nature,natural resources,and environment have become so profound that the status of spiritual barrenness showed by people has got more obvious and worse when they are facing their conditions of development and survival.What so many voices they are! But,what does anybody know exactly we are demanding right now?What on earth does Traditional Culture mean?I would like to define it this way:Tradition,it does not mean something descending from ancient generations or used in the old times,but some cultural entity,both material and spirit,that exists with characteristics of its historyand the development of the society.Connecting with the study on national arts of Zhuang nationality,I have been thinking why not go find the cultural quintessence from current situation of traditional handicraft and fine arts along with the course of urbanization?After asking myself this question,I took emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade as my object of study.So,today I hope I can show you some beauty of Zhuang culture hidden in the traditional handicraft and fine arts through research and analysis to the art form and cultural identity by professional method of National Arts.For a long time,Zhuang brocade has been taken as a cultural icon for traditional silk fabric of fine arts and bearing the cultural and artistic creation of Zhuang people for over a thousand years.The emerge and development of Zhuang brocade integrate the development of the nationality itself and their artistic life,and so does the same way between the weaving skills and the technicians Emblazonry is an integral part of Zhuang Brocade,changing and moving forward as the people’s daily life does in different historical period,even though it is motionless but conveys restless culture of the nationality.So,you may wonder,how do we classify emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade?Are there any artistic characteristics and aesthetic connotation inside?Has emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade got its own language and regional characteristics to interpret its folk culture?Is there anything new going on?Does it need innovating?But in fact,Zhuang brocade answers these questions clearly and loudly by its handing down from centuries ago and still being so dynamic today,and by the liveliness and life quality of its emblazonry.Emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade not only bears Zhuang people’s custom,habits,faith,emotion,value,but also records their agricultural lifestyle and cultural status.To study it,either in a diachronic or synchronic way,through its artistic characteristics and phenomena we can analyze the relationship between the weaving of fabric and emblazonry by the expressions regarding technical,material,and colors’ aspects,demonstrate the relationship between emblazonry and the functions of the clothing by the aesthetic,usability,and ornamental feature,research the connection of emblazonry and the development of the society,and pursue the culture value borne by these artistic characteristics.It is what this study all about to find out the value of emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade and to predict its direction of development.Zhuang Jin,Zhuang Brocade,as a kind of picture-weaving culture,is named by its regional features and an independent type of craft with internal cultural structure and characteristics.It includes all kinds of Zhuan brocade made by people not only from Zhuang nationality,but also from those non-Zhuang nationalities such as Han,Dong,Mao,Yao,Maonan,Jing.The Chinese word Wen Shi,emblazonry,is a general term for the decorative patterns on an object,also for an activity of drawing lines or pictures for decoration purpose,and a combined concept for picture drawing and decoration.As an noun,it contains the artistry of patterns,flower patterns,symbol display;as a verb,it includes usability in the decoration activities with its the structure of fabric,weaving skills and function of the fabricTherefore,the Chinese word Wen Shi,emblazonry,is a living culture image,defined by the word Zhuang Jin,Zhuang Brocade,in front of it as its adjective in Chinese.The emergence of emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade comes from the ideas of people,combining with their skills and the material they used.The elements for the patterns are affected by the weaving tools and the methods.The patterns are produced with characteristics in local Zhuang style,such as Yawz,luemj,caeuh(being beautiful 美),andaesthetic characters of Ndei yawj(being good-looking),under the action of the expressions regarding technical,material,and colors’ aspects and constrained by fabric craft.Based on the original meanings,according to local address terms,they can be divided into seven categories:(Ⅰ)Raiz mwnz(Circular;circle-shape pattern)、Raiz da ngoenz(sun-shape pattern)、Raiz Iwg baenq(return lines pattern)、Raiz raemx langh(wave ripple-shape pattern)、Raiz bog va(posy design;leaf-shape and flower-shape pattern)、Raiz fwj(cloudscape;cloud-shape pattern)、Raiz fueng cingq(Square grain;single aquare-shape pattern)、Raiz gok soem(diamond-shape pattern)、Raiz 1da faex(glen check pattern)、Raiz yiengh bwn(Feather grain;feather-shape pattern)etc.(Ⅱ)Raiz duj va(arabesquitic):Raiz va gut(Chrysanthemum pattern)、Raiz va gveiq(Osmanthus pattern)、Raiz va moiz(prunus-blossom design)、Raiz va fuz sang(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis;China rose pattern)、Raiz va bat gak(Octagonal pattern)、Raiz va reux(Kapok pattern)、Raiz ndok mbu(Lotus pattern)、Raiz va mak oij(Pomegranate pattern)、Raiz va maux dan,raiz go nap(Peony pattern).(Ⅲ)Raiz gaet leih(Auspicious pattern):Raiz duz ngieg(Dragon Python)、duz fungh(Veins of Phoenix)、Raiz hingq fuk(Happy pattern)、Raiz gyaeu bak bi(A long life pattern).(Ⅳ:)Raiz duz gaiq(Animal lines)Raiz duz gaeq hau(White chicken pattern)、Raiz duz bya bej(Fish pattern)、Rraiz mbaj raiz(Butterfly pattern)、Raiz duz goep(The frog pattern).(Ⅴ)Raiz dox gaiq(Physical lines):Raiz gyaiz(Basket pattern)、Raiz caw bauj(Bronze pattern)、Raiz doengz cienz(Silver grain)、Raiz domq(Hydrangea).(Ⅵ)Raiz boux vunz(Figure lines):Raiz vunz mbin(Immortal lines)、Raiz vunz goep(Frogman lines).(Ⅶ)Raiz cih(Text lines):“卍”The swastika word lines、Raiz lwg baenq(Return lines).“寿”Shou pattern、“福”",pattern、“囍”"Double happiness" patternEmblazonry of Zhuang Brocade is a kind of cultural symbol of Zhuang people,and has rich symbolic meanings.The symbolic meanings are expressed mainly through homophonic,analogy,table number and other meansAnalogical thinking of the Zhuang brocade artists,is a way to express the symbolic meanings by using the similarity of the nature of animals and plants and the motive of human being to pursue luck and fortune.It’s no doubt that its symbolic connotation is related to the faith and worship,myth and philosophy at the bottom of cultural structure of Zhuang nationality.lt gives expression to Zhuang people’s worship of original reproduction,totemand ancestor,while reflects their philosophical realm of unity of heaven and man and psychology of pursuing luck and fortune.The emerge and development of Zhuang brocade has a great relationship with brocade’s craft and materialThe study on emblazonry can’t do without the one on procedureand characteristics of processing,and on the relationship between weaving craft and emblazonry,and between emblazonry and usability of the clothing.There are two kinds of loomsfor weaving Zhuang brocade,mainly traditional bamboo cage loom and modern Paizi loom.Bamboo cage loom generally consists of five parts:wooden frame,loaded yarn,mention yarn,Jacquard weaveand knitting flower.Before weaving emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade,cotton and silk thread and some other necessary material shall be prepared,patterns be designed,warp thread be rolled onto the cone,and then install them on the loom.After the installation,one can start to weave emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade by using the art of cross junctionKnitting technology has a close connection with emblazonry.Pure blue,black,and red are the most popular colors.The structure of loom for weaving traditional Zhuang brocade used three or four shuttles,while that of modern one is simplified to be two.The features of patterns of Zhuang brocade are to be symmetric,neat,abstract,with exaggerated shape,and rich rhythm.Emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade,as a kind of folk artworks,is made to satisfy certain needs of Zhuang people.The usability of it is the most elemental nature and basic function.It gives expression to the articles of everyday use,and also to the direct utilitarian purpose of the work done by Zhuang people,that is,in accordance with who to give and where to be used for,different patterns are designed to fit the needs.Its aesthetic function works the same as the other kinds of folk artworks,mainly for pleasing the eyes and making oneself relaxed and comfortableIt pleases the eyes by its beauty of modeling and colors;and makes oneself relaxed and comfortable by the contents,profound historical cultural connotation and artistic conception.Emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade not only becomes a sign for national and ethnic identity of Zhuang nationality together with bronze drums,folk songs,and embroidery balls,but also strengthens the function of national identity with the unique Zhuang cultural contents shown on it。It has also normative education function that regulates the social division of labors for both male and female,the dressing and selection of clothes for different groups on different occasions,and civilizes people respecting the elders,loving husband and wife,responsibility for children.Affected by the limits of material and craft,emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade,as a kind of folk artworks and an integral part of Zhuang Brocade,has the artistic characteristics of the source material,and Restricted by the usability of its carrier,it isinfluenced by Man,the nature,and the society.Throughout history,after experiencing the development from ancient to recent time,modern era of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade has come into being.As most of us agree,productivity decides production factors,and determines the economy and the superstructure.Under the context of development of Modern Era,emblazonry of Zhuang Brocade reflects not only the dynamic outlook of social development,but also people’s mental outlook and cultural aspirations.From economic development factors in different time periods in the history,it is obvious to see that the founding of the People’s Republic of China is a watershed for the Zhuang brocade leaping over from traditional to modern.Since 1949,the development of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade has been up and down for several times:it experienced a rise in the beginning and fell quiet again later on;in 1980s,experienced a short period of prosperity when the reform and opening up policies were newly carried out and fell again because the tighter industry regulations were carried out later on;and finally,here comes the opportunity for development of revival of national culture nowadays.When collision between traditional crafts and modern industrialization happens,as a cultural sign reflecting what people need,how does emblazonry of Zhuang brocade change accordingly?In the context of regional culture and national self-confidence,how does emblazonry of Zhuang brocade conform to the historical process of development?Does it need developing?And how does it develop?After a long research,we find out thatto achieve effective heritage for the skills of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade is a tough,long project,needing to cultivateconsciousness of the whole society,and providing a favorable economic and social environment.Based on this,to solve the core problem,we need to deal with the problem of the protection and cultivation of inheritors.It means that inheritors’social status need improving and their economic income need guaranteeing.The cultivation of inheritors should be done by the way of mother and daughter inheriting and master to apprentice transfer,besides the training in the manufactories.To cultivate more excellent inheritors,the way of master to apprentice transfer should be used and encouraged effectively by governrnment,enterprises,and society.As a cultural sign of Zhuang nationality,the work for innovation and development of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade is more important to do after accepting theheritage.We are sure that the culture and the art value of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade should be explored,the machinery and the skills be improved,the academic research be strengthened,therefore,to promote a new development for the craft of emblazonry of Zhuang brocade.Till now,seeing these patterns that representing the aspiration of local people’s Yawz,luemj,caeuh(being beautiful),andaesthetic characters of Ndei yawj(being good-looking),we usually want to seek their historical and cultural backgrounds and origins,their various human and natural factors,the People who giving them the value and meaning,their decorative characteristics and connotation of folk culture and those pairs of hands working behind them.Needless to say,our researches need to be continued.