Taking the Young as the Standard-Study on Toys in Shanghai During the Republic of China

Author:Zhao Dong Xia

Supervisor:zhao jian


Degree Year:2019





This paper aims at the toys of the Republic of China Era,which are studied integratedly from the angle of design and through the knowledge and the methods of the relative subjects,such as Function science,Material science,Chromatics,Reception aesthetics,Ludology,Psychology,Physiology,Pedagogy,Sociology of childhood,etc.This article clarified the critical questions about the toys of the Republic of China Era in Shanghai,which include:(1)the background and the foundation of the generation of the toys;(2)the ecological conditions and the factors directly involved in toy design;(3)the enlightenment for the toy design of today.Besides the introduction and the conclusion,this paper is compromised from five parts that based on the logic of child,Ideas,ecology,design,and pursuing.The first chapter is “The children in Shanghai during the Republic of China Era”.In this part,the paper has analyzed the encounter of the children in Shanghai during the Republic of China Era,who are the consuming group of the toys for children;the second chapter is “The theory of taking the young as the standard and it’s influence”.In this part,the transformation of the thought of toys in the republic china era is focused and analyzed;the third chapter is “The ecology of toys in Shanghai during the Republic of China Era”.In this part,the ecological conditions and multiple forces of the toy design of the Republic of China Era have been mainly focused on and analyzed;the forth chapter is “The design practice of toys in Shanghai during the Republic of China”.In this part,the exploration of the design of the toys for children of the Republic of China Era in Shanghai is mainly discussed;the fifth chapter is “The reflections on the Design of Toys in Shanghai during the Republic of China”.In this part,the emphasis is laid on the analysis of the generation,development,prosperity and decline of Shanghai toys in the specific time and space of the Republic of China Era.This article draw the conclusions as follow:1.From perfect finished products to perfect parts.The toys designed for children during the Republic of China Era are mostly perfect finished products,which are started confusing and result are made.Today’s toys are more perfect parts,which are started clearly and multiple results can be expected.2.From sapping one’s spirit by seeking pleasures to teaching through lively activities.The belief of toy in the Republic of China Era was based on the educator’s standpoint.Although opposed to the toy concept of "sapping one’s spirit by seeking pleasures ",it still emphasized the controlling,guidance and shaping of children’s play,which had obvious and definite purpose of influence and did not highlight the independent value of "play".Today’s belief of toy is based on the educator’s position,which emphasizes the process of exploration and preparation rather than the demand for results.3.From technology completion to humanity reinforcement.Shanghai toys in the Republic of China Era were simple and fresh,making it easy to feel the natural flavor and emotional temperature.Today’s children’s toys are surrounded by high technology,intellectualization and digitization,reflecting the lack of simplicity and temperature.Absorbing the humanistic flavor of Shanghai toy design from the Republic of China Era is helpful to the integration of today’s design forces,design resources and design elements.3.From growing “standard” to growing “partner”.In the Republic of China Era,although children were the consumers of toys,the service goal of toys was actually parents.Parents predicted their children’s future by choosing toys.Toys were the embodiment of the "standard" of parenting type.Today’s parents no longer expect and can hardly control their children’s future,especially their inability to "rely on toys" to control accurately.They are more inclined to respect their children’s emotion and personality development as much as possible,in order to cultivating the children’s comprehensive ability to adapt to the future society.In the meantime,the choice,accompanying,updating and combination of toys can undoubtedly show the role of "growing partner" to varying degrees,which can not be replaced by parents.5.From the outdoor playing to the indoor exploring."Outdoor playing" was the basic scene of children’s play in Shanghai during the Republic of China Era.It conformed to children’s nature of yearning for nature,exploring nature and integrating into nature,and helped to promote children’s interpersonal interaction.Today’s Shanghai children have exclusive game space,but they have lost the chance to play with each other among their peers,and become more and more "indoorsy" objectively.