The Studies of She Costume Culture Evolution and Inheritance

Author:Zuo Jing

Supervisor:fan xue rong


Degree Year:2019





She ethnic people is one of the few ethnic minorities mostly inhabited in East China,and they have their special culture system.She costume is not only people?s necessities for covering body and resisting cold,but also a main reflection of She humanistic spirit and ethnic aesthetic consciousness.Meanwhile,it is one of the important features to distinguish from other ethnic people.Overall nearly thousand-year variation of She costume culture,we can appreciate the plentiful formal and beautiful ethnic arts,experience the ecological and natural shift farming production and livelihood,and find the permeating effects of Min and Yue local Baiyue race and Han culture represented by Hakka culture on She ethnic people.That will provide help for researching how to inherit and develop ethnic culture.In this study,we investigated She costume using research views,methods and results from multiple subjects including cultural anthropology,art,sociology,history and textile science and technology.On the basis of literature textual research,as wellas the field investigation,questionnaire and physical analysis,this study combined She minority traditional costume shape type and dyeing craft,textually researched the ancient,modern and contemporary minority costume culture vicissitude course,and then for the first time to build the relationship model of minority costume culture ecosystem,using the concept of ecological postmodernism to witness its intrinsic value,in order to explore the minority costume in contemporary inheritance development path.On the basis of the literature textual research and field investigation,this study combed She minority traditional costume shapes from the dimension of space which covers more than 90% of She minority population in more than one hundred cities and counties of the six provinces of Zhejiang Fujian Anhui Guizhou Guangdong and Jiangxi.And according to the shape,summed up the She costume for the first time,as currently the most complete 14 kinds of types: Lishui,Jingning,Pingyang,Taishun types in Zhejiang province;Fuding,Xiapu,Fu?an,Luoyuan,Yanping,Shunchang,Guangze,Zhangping type in Fujian province;Zhangping type in Jiangxi province;Liubao type in Guizhou province.And using the relevant principles and methods of art to study the overall characteristics of the She minority costumes art from aspects of color,material,pattern,modeling and accessories,and summarize its artistic characteristics as follows: blue-based,colorful ornament;hemp and cotton primary,others auxiliary;flowers and plants,suitable for the edges;phoenix coronet for recognition,local variation;silver ornaments prevailing,with weaving and cutting.It is proposed for the first time that the migration and inter-ethnic influence of She minority in history is not only progressive,but also possibly stepwise and retrospective.Through investigation of the She minority traditional dyeing and finishing technique and related plants in eastern China,for the first time,this study made a national catalog of botany of 13 She dyeing plants.Then the dyeing pigment in plants were classified analysis,found that the pigment type cover indoles carrots,flavonoid compounds,polyphenols,quinone compounds.Furthermore,the mechanism and method of the most representative indigo dyeing of She minority were studied,and it was determined that the She ethnic dyeing indigo was most dyeing by fermentation.UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the blue dyes in the She cultural relics.By identifying the synthetic indigo and natural indigo,it could be known that synthetic indigo and natural indigo might be used together in Lishui area in the late qing dynasty.In the period of the republic of China,the yarns dyed with chemical dyes in Jingning area may have entered the folk.In the early days of the founding of new China,She people in Jingning region may still continue to use vegetable dyes.Taking the course of the development and evolution of the costumes of the ancient She minority as the longitude and the living and cultural background of the She minority in different periods as the weaves,whole of the process of ancient She costume development is combed for the first time,which can be divided 4 periods,including the original time(Han-Tang Dynasity),multi-source integration time(Song-Yuan Dynasty),simplicity time in the period of displacing(Ming Dynasty),and acculturated maturity time(Qing Dynasty).Drawing on the theory of cultural change,this study analyzed the influence of the She cultural life background on the development and changes of costumes,concluded the factors that affect the changes of ancient She costume can be summarized as two aspects.The one is the impetus which promotes the evolution,and the other one is resistant force which saves the heritage.The impetus can be divided into biological factor,geographical factor,economic factor,technology development factor,cultural transmission factor,psychological factor and so on,while the resistant force mainly focuses on national faith and national character.The changes of ethnic costumes,which reflect the formation and development of the Chinese culture and cohesiveness,are usually the result of multiple factors.In this study,the representative She costumes were taken as examples in Zhejiang,Fujian,Jiangxi and Guangdong provices where are the most important She areas,to summerize the minority costume shape and the changes of modern times.It is found that the development of modern She costume culture was following the mainstream culture.On this basis,the geography,society,economy,history,politics aspects of cultural information of She minority costumes conveys as follows: multi-zone forming,downtown and mountain as boundries;technology dependence,following mainstream;religious hierarchy,family ethics;inheriting continuously,dormant and acculturation.Through the analysis of the evolution process of modern She costumes,it is found that modern She costumes have developed a diversified pattern of radical change,simplification,steady progress,borrowing,grafting and disappearing.This process reflects the improvement of She people in economic level,educational level,political status,and so on,and also discloses the implied and concerned problem in keeping their culture bases under the impact of cultural globalization.In this study,279 pieces of data collected from five questionnaires on the current situation of She clothing culture from 2010 to 2016 were collected.For the first time,the differences in domestic and foreign feedback,the inheritance status of ethnic schools,urban and rural differences,age and gender differences on the current situation of She costume culture were investigated and analyzed.The results indicate that She people,especially She teenagers,did not wear She costume usually.She costume wearing occasion did not closely connect with traditional folk custom,which resulted in She people alienating their culture and indifferent national sentiments.Compared to She costume,teenagers liked modern clothes obviously.Fortunately,their national consciousness and sense of responsibility can be stimulated by outside world induction and strengthen.For almost of respondents,the obvious feature in She costume was its identity cognition,while its utilitarian function did not induce their great attention and acceptance.For the representative feature of She costume,She people in almost of regions chose “colorful thread embroidering flower” and “phoenix chignon”,while She people in Zhangping,Jiangxi province,chose “colorful hem”.In the thought of almost of respondents,they believed that traditional She costume culture had positive effects on modern She people,but the traditional culture was vanishing and needed protection.For the protection of She costume through improvement,the thought from She people living near to village and raising age was more conservative.While the people living near to city trended to choose modern clothes,obscured to She costume feature and permit their changes,indicating that the existence of She costume became weak.She people were more indifferent to their costume culture,even rejection,with their age trending younger.She youth from 19 to 25 held suspicion and diversity attitude to their culture.There was no obvious difference in the cognition and attitude to She costume between men and women.This study puts costume culture under ecological culture system of coordinates,using qualitative research method of grounded theory for the first time,studied the minority costume culture and its internal relations,and built the relation model of ecosystem minority costume culture,pointed out that its kernels are "brave" faith,"equal respect" of society and " united with everything" view of nature.Then the reasons for the change of She costume culture under the influence of modernism were discussed: the mechanistic view of nature,the one-sided male spirit and the economic ideology,which are against the She traditional thinking paradigm.Finally,from the perspective of ecological post-modernism,it can be seen that the inheritance of She minority costume culture needs to be treated with the view of organic integrity,internal harmony and the culture of respecting and caring for the life community,so as to achieve a win-win situation between the knowledge information society and the inheritance of traditional culture.